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Fever tablets hotline origins and research

时间:2014-11-28 11:33来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
Fever tablets hotline general principles, the use of gravity (usually divided into two phases thermosiphons) dates back to the age of steam, the modern concept of capillary-driven heat pipe is the first proposal by GM (General Motors) of RS
  Fever tablets hotline general principles, the use of gravity (usually divided into two phases thermosiphons) dates back to the age of steam, the modern concept of capillary-driven heat pipe is the first proposal by GM (General Motors) of RS Gaugler, and in 1942 the idea to apply for a patent. Using capillary action of the benefits of self-developed, first demonstrated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1963 by George Grover, subsequently published in 1964 in the Journal of Applied Physics. Grover pointed out in his notebook:
  "Surface tension of the heat transfer fluid through capillary movement" pump "effect, may be sufficient to move liquid from the low temperature region to a high temperature region (and subsequent return to the difference in vapor form for use as a driving force, in both temperature), to the amount of heat from the hot cold zone. such a closed system without external pumps, power may be interested in moving to the vapor pressure of the radiant heat from the reactor core is of particular interest in space reactor system must gravity conditions only as to overcome the capillary and drag the vapor through its channels. "
  Fever tablets hotline in 1964 and 1966, RCA company in the late 1960s, the first NASA played a large role in the development of the heat pipe is a significant amount of funding for their research applications and reliability in the space flight from Grover's recommendations. NASA's attractiveness heat pipe cooling system is understandable given its low weight, high heat flux and zero power consumption. However, their main interest is based on the fact that work in zero gravity environment, the system will not be adversely affected. The first application of heat pipe in the space program in the heat balance of the satellite transponder. Satellite orbit, while the direct radiation exposure to the sun, while the other side is completely dark, deep cold of space exposure. This can cause serious temperature deviation (hence the reliability and accuracy) of the transponder. Purpose designed heat pipe cooling system management of high heat flux, and the impact and do not exhibit flawless operation in gravity. Cooling system is the first description and variable heat pipe used to actively adjust the heat flow or temperature of the evaporator.
  Publications in 1967 and 1968 from outside Feldman, Eastman, applications Katzoff the first discussion of the heat pipe, the government's concern and classification, such as: air conditioning, engine cooling systems, electronics cooling under high temperature does not drop. The document also proposed the first-mentioned elastic arteries and flat heat pipe. 1969 introduced the concept of publication rotating heat pipe cooling process and its application to turbine blades and heat pipe applied to a discussion at the low temperature.
  Fever tablets hotline began in the 1980s, Sony started to heat pipe cooling solution, and in some places and forced convection heat sink fins passive consumer electronics products. At first, they use the tuner and amplifier, and soon spread to other high heat density electronics applications. In the late 1990s, the increasingly fierce microcomputer CPU heat pipe prompted the number of US patent applications increased threefold. As a specialized industrial heat pipe heat transfer components from development and production of consumer goods from the United States to Asia. Modern CPU heat pipe is typically made of copper and water is used as the working fluid.
  Grover and his colleagues are working on nuclear cell spacecraft cooling system in extreme temperature conditions. Heat pipes are widely used in the spacecraft as a means to manage the internal temperature.
  Dongguan Arima heating element of the heat pipe is widely used in many modern computer systems, which increase the power requirements and the subsequent increase in demand due to the heat radiation of the cooling system is greater. Generally used to heat loss from the heat pipe heat sink to the environment of the CPU and GPU components, e.g.
  Heat pipe is also widely used in solar thermal water heating applications in conjunction with vacuum tube solar collector array. In these applications, typically using distilled water as within the evacuated glass tube, and is located within the heat transfer fluid for brass seal length of the sun, the individual absorption pipe vacuum tube solar water heating applications, can provide up to 40% efficiency compared to the traditional "flat plate solar collectors. this is mainly due to the presence of slow convection and conduction heat loss in pipes, reducing the relative efficiency of the vacuum. the vacuum pipe system inside the tube, because" compared to the "flat" Collectors flat-plate collector with a larger aperture size, can absorb more solar energy per unit area. This means that, while a single vacuum tube having better insulation (lower conduction and convection losses) due to the vacuum generated in the tube, the absorption per unit area was found in an array of the completed solar cell module of the tube less energy since there is less absorbent surface because the sun toward the circular design of the vacuum tube, an area noted. Thus, the real world the two designs is about the same efficiency.
  Vacuum tube collectors reduces the need to add antifreeze additives vacuum helps slow heat loss. However, prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures of the heat transfer fluid can still frozen, precautions must be taken to ensure that the design will not damage the vacuum freeze liquid. Solar water heaters can be designed to frost protection down to more than -3 ° C, special additives, and in Antarctica are used to heat water.
  Permafrost building is difficult, because the thermal structure of thawing permafrost. In order to avoid the risk of instability, and in some cases, the use of heat pipes. For example, in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System remaining geothermal residual oil, and the oil in the mobile generated by friction and turbulence can be supported by the anchor support legs and permafrost melting pipes on. This will cause the pipeline to sink, and may be damaged. Each vertical support member in order to prevent this situation have been installed four vertical heat pipe.
  Along part of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, also be used to heat the heat pipe. Roadbed and track absorb the sun's heat. Formed on either side of a vertical heat pipe to prevent any further, thermal diffusion into the surrounding ground.
  "Magic cooking hot needle" through energy conversion system, the first commercial heat pipe products, once sold in 1966. Cooking pin using water as the working fluid. Envelope having compatibility stainless steel, the interior copper layers. During operation, the heat pipe through roast stamp. One end of the pipe extends to the middle of its heat absorption bake oven. Half of the effective thermal conductivity of the heat pipe of the high-cut chunks of meat cooking time of a normal period.
  This principle has been applied to camping stoves, camping under the circumstances and the like, will be a lot of heat in the low-temperature baking goods, as well as cooking other dishes. One such example is Bakepacker system.
  In the range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, air conditioning, heat pipe is positioned in the air handling system supply and exhaust air flow, or an industrial process exhaust gases to recover thermal energy.
  The battery apparatus by multiple rows of finned tube heat pipe is located in the supply and exhaust air stream. The exhaust air-side heat pipe, its heat of evaporation of the refrigerant, while from the extract air. Refrigerant vapor toward the cold end of the inner tube, the supply air side of the device, where the condensed, and gives its heat. The refrigerant condensed by a combination of gravity and capillary action in the wick returns. Accordingly, the heat from the exhaust air flow moves the refrigerant through the wall, and then through the wall of the refrigerant from the supply air stream.
  Due to the nature of the apparatus, higher efficiency, when the unit is mounted on the exhaust side with the supply air side upright position, which allows the rapid flow of the liquid refrigerant under gravity to return to the evaporator. Under normal circumstances, the overall heat transfer efficiency up to 75% of manufacturers have claimed
  Since the early 1990s, many nuclear reactor thermal power systems have been proposed in the reactor core and the power conversion system using heat pipes transfer between [13] of the first nuclear reactor to generate electricity using the heat pipe, the first demonstration of the use of flat-topped fission operation on September 13,2012.
  Heat pipe must be tuned to a specific cooling conditions. Select the tube material, the size and the coolant in the heat pipe work, results in an optimum temperature.
  When heated beyond a certain temperature, all the working fluid evaporated in the heat pipe and the condensation will no longer occur strange mad network, under such conditions, the thermal conductivity of the heat pipe is effectively reduced thermal conductivity of the solid metal shell alone. Since most of the copper heat pipe configuration (having a high thermal conductivity of metal), overheating of the heat pipe will typically proceed at approximately 1/80 of the original thermal conductivity.
  In addition, when below a certain temperature, the working fluid does not undergo phase change, and the thermal conductivity will be reduced to a solid metal casing. One of the key criteria of selection of the working fluid within the application desired operating temperature range. The lower limit temperature, freezing point working fluid typically occurs more than a few degrees.
  Most manufacturers can make the heat pipe is not less than 3 mm in diameter of a conventional, due to limitations of the material (though can be made 1.6 mm sheet). Experiments have been performed with a miniature heat pipe, a pipe, a sharp edge, such as a triangle or a diamond tube. In these cases, the sharp edges of the fluid transmission by capillary action, and there is no wick is needed.

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